Subject Nuclear Basics
DateCreated 12/2/2008 8:19:00 PM
PostedDate 12/10/2008 11:44:00 PM
Body I've just started to jot it down as I summarize them, and as I find errors in it, hopefully I can correct them in later time one step at a time.

Nuclear phenomena are the basic function of Universe including humans and all other natures we can possibly observe or perceive. It is a form of life (something exists with kinetic energy and interacts to each other in time axis-4th dimensional axis other than space, good example to this is 'Falling in Love' kind of transformation of energy). And this interaction is also called Force.

There are 4 fundamental forces (way of interactions) we recognize or discovered, which are Strong Force (force binding nucleus such as gluons), Electromagnetism (activities of photons as radiation, as well as movements of electrons as current through conduction), Gravity (it is not yet clearly explained about the carrier and speed of this force except that it is caused by mass, though some recent experiments may suggest the speed is equivalent or close to speed of light which has been debated without any believable conclusion) and Weak Force (this one is basically similar to Electromagnetism within the very tiny region in Nucleus how particles behave due to this force and responsible for decay of Quarks and Leptons to become much more stable matter while emitting Bosons as energy carrier for the difference of mass before and after of such decay).

Elementary Particles->The smallest unit of singular particles can no longer be divided in to the group of multiple particles in it according to our present knowledge. They are Leptons family - Electron, Neutrino (unlike Electron, the mass of Neutrino is currently unknown) are one of them, Quarks family - they make up (compose) Protons and Neutrons etc, and Boson family - Photon is one of them, and they don't compose atoms, they simply carry energy in order to exchange energies among matters. If you see two magnets apart reacting to each other without touching, it is so because they're exchanging photons between them and they behave accordingly. If you stand on thin paper 10 meters above the ground as to be your floor, you're guaranteed to fall,(it is so, because one sheet of paper does not have enough density of atoms compare to bottom our feet, thus there isn't enough exchange of bosons to support us compare to the gravitational pull from the earth), however if you stand on one meter thick paper or other materials such as iron or wood as your floor, they will support you at that height without making you fall through it, why? Because the amount of exchange of bosons between the bottom of your feet and supporting materials are different depends on what is supporting you (atomic density of each material). There are simple exchange of energy by bosons going on in our every day life which we may overlook and not aware of, such as how you're viewing this article on computer screen due to radiation of photons within visible wave length from the screen.

Antimatter/Antiparticles->Experiments discovered and shows existence of Antimatter comprised by Antiparticles (opposite charge of Elementary Particles), however in our physical universe, Antimatter do not seem to exist long period of time due to annihilation occurs when matter and antimatter meet. Explanation for Antimatter and its behavior is still a mystery at current physics, except we know they definitely exist.

Radiation ->Form of photon being emitted in various frequencies. Lower frequency part of waves are radio waves used for radios, TVs, mobile phones as wireless electronic transmissions, then micro wave, infra red, visible light from Red to Violet you see in Rainbow, then Ultra Violet, then Alpha radiation, Beta radiation, X rays and finally Gamma radiation.

Photon ->One of elementary particles (the smallest particles belongs to Bosons family which is a force carrier particles) and photon does not have mass but it only has kinetic energy (such as heat, light and responsible to generate magnetic field, however effect of photon is not noticeable until it collide with/hit another matter, atoms, particles etc, in other words photon does not heat up or shine empty space while traveling through it, the effect is only noticeable with associating matter receiving photon to interact with, such as sun ray hits earth's atmosphere by hitting floating particles causing our daylight, warming up our palms when receiving sunlight, shine moon's surface by hitting on it, and so on ). Photon always travels in speed of light (300,000 km/s in vacuum). Although I would like to elaborate a bit more about photon, because actually no one knows what photon is as to be tangible existence, it is something Einstein theoretically predicted its existence and it was proven to be true through its behaviors that it must exists. While it is identified as particle, it actually has no mass, no size or shape, weird isn't it? So, to me, actually calling photon as particle may be misleading, it is rather path and behavior of energy travels between given points, but normal human mind can accept it better as particle which carries energy, so they decided to call it photon. For example, person A wrote a letter on paper and in order to get this letter to person B, something must carry and deliver it to B so that B can interact (generate force between A & B). This letter just cannot be delivered to B unless there's carrier, delivery boy, so to speak, but if this delivery boy has no mass and size, he is a photon. Now, the behavior of photon is actually visible and detectable, because it acts as form of wave, and these waves are basically called radiations.
Thus in turn, radiation is behavior of photon as wave. How big and small this wave could be? The largest wave length is the size of universe and the smallest wave length is a point without any dimension, now I hope you get it! :)

Neutrino->Neutrino belongs to Lepton's family, so it is sibling of Electron, however it has no electric charge, the size or mass is unknown and assumed to be much lighter/smaller than Electron. It is another mysterious guy who does not react with anything and it can go right through any existing matters without affecting anything (if Neutrino hits the earth, it just go through it to the other side of earth and go back to space), so actually universe suppose to be filled with lots of Neutrinos, it is kind of very independent fellow.

Bosons -> Bosons are type of particles which are not structural part of atoms, Bosons are byproduct during nucleus decaying, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion processes emitted as energy as well as responsible to all interaction among matters.

Nucleus -> Nucleus is the core/center of atom consists of Quarks and Leptons which forms Neutron(s) & Proton(s).

Atom -> Atom is the smallest particle with unique chemical property with various numbers of electrons orbiting around Nucleus. Each different type of atom has different combination of elementary particles within nucleus which defines the unique nature of chemical property. Hydrogen (H) is the lightest and simplest atom of all having one proton and one electron without neutron, while Iron (Fe) has much heavier atom with 26 protons, 30 neutrons and 23 electrons. The size of atom is basically determined by the radius of out most electron's orbit. The theory of atoms, and the name atom originated from a Greek Philosopher named Democritus who lived around 400 BC. He proposed that all life and matter is made up of tiny particles which he called atoms. The word atom comes from the Greek word atomos meaning invisible.

Electron->An electron is a negatively charged subatomic particle. It can be either free (not attached to any atom), or bound to the nucleus of an atom. Electrons in atoms exist in spherical shells of various radii, representing energy levels. The larger the spherical shell, the higher the energy contained in the electron.

In electrical conductors, current flow results from the movement of electrons from atom to atom individually, and from negative to positive electric poles in general. In semiconductor materials, current also occurs as a movement of electrons. But in some cases, it is more illustrative to envision the current as a movement of electron deficiencies from atom to atom. An electron-deficient atom in a semiconductor is called a hole. Holes 'move' from positive to negative electric poles in general. The electron charge, symbolized by e, is about 1.60 x 10-19 C. The mass of an electron at rest, symbolized me, is approximately 9.11 x 10-31 kilogram (kg). Electrons moving at an appreciable fraction of the speed of light, for example in a particle accelerator, have greater mass because of relativistic effects.

Proton->Proton is positively charged. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is the atomic number for the chemical element. A proton has a rest mass, denoted mp, of approximately 1.673 x 10-27 kilogram (kg).

Neutron->Neutron is electrically neutral and has a rest mass, denoted mn, of approximately 1.675 x 10-27 kg. The mass of a proton or neutron increases when the particle attains extreme speed, for example in a cyclotron or linear accelerator.

Molecules->Stable state of matter made by combination of two or more atoms, such as O2 (Oxygen), H2O (Water), CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) etc. The forces among each atoms to bind them together to compose Molecules is the attraction between positively charged Protons and negatively charged Electrons among different atoms while these charges are neutral within single atom.

Ion and Ionization->Ion is kind of atom either with extra electron or less electron in it compare to fundamental atomic structure of each atom. Plasma is the clouds of Ionized Gas  floating in universe and it is the fourth state of matters following form of Gas, Liquid and Solid states.(Clouds in sky are form of Gas of water H2O, while Rain is in form of Liquid by H2O and Snow or Ice is the form of Solid State of water-H2O), each transformation of state is initiated by the body temperature of such matter (made by single or multiple Molecules). It is also possible to attain plasma state of water H2O once either H(Hydrogen) or O(Oxygen) is charged by extra Electron, or missing Electron as to become H+, H-, or O+, O-.

Vacuum->It is rather hypothetical state describing empty space with no matter in it, however in reality even in far outer space, there're different kind of particles floating around especially Neutrinos, since Neutrino doesn't interfere with any other matters, there're also countless amount of radiations going through every region of outer space. Therefore, in reality, there's no true vacuum space and temperature of such near vacuum state varies due to radiations.

Nucleus decaying process -> There is atoms with stable nucleus and unstable nucleus. Atom with unstable nucleus goes through Nucleus decaying process in order to attain stable nucleus state one step at a time. During this process, original nucleus reforms new lighter combination(s) of elementary particles for this new nucleus and extra mass subtracted in this process will be transmitted in form of pure energy, mostly in form of photon and these photons emitted are called radiation. If the frequency (vibration) of these photons is higher, it produces higher activity of radiation and highest frequency of radiation is called Gamma ray or Gamma radiation. Due to its high frequency (being powerful or energized), it can easily penetrate any other form of atoms, in turn it becomes most dangerous to all type of atoms consists life forms and destroy their lives. This phenomenon is well defined by Einstein's famous equation E=mc2, the mass and energy are basically the same thing. So, if during the process of this decay and there's difference in mass before and after of this decaying process, the difference is emitted as pure energy, mostly in form of photons, others could be protons, neutrinos and so forth whatever they are in form of elementary particles, or structural particles of Nucleus.

Radionuclide -> an atom with unstable nucleus. Radionuclide is the same as Isotopes or Radioisotopes. Any substance consists radionuclide are called radioactive substance or 'Contaminated substance by radio activity' in any form whether it's water, fish, soil, tree or human. Radionuclide within those substances will continually repeat Nucleus decaying process within the substance until they become stable nucleus. The form of Nucleus decaying process within those substances are basically immense heat to burn (due to emitting photons) up anything and destroy original structures of atoms forming those substances including atoms structuring living tissues /cells), especially DNA protein, thus regeneration process is permanently damaged in living bodies.

Nuclear Fission (Atomic Bomb and Nuclear Plant) -> nuclear fission is artificial way to promote Nucleus decaying process in succession to form chain reaction in very short period of such reaction to emit immense amount of Gamma radiation as well as different elementary particles in form of explosion with heat using extremely unstable radioactive isotopes such as Uranium or Plutonium. To detonate such reaction is to simply compress these isotopes with regular explosives such as TNT, C4 which also produce huge amount of heat to further stimulate this process, which is called Atomic Bomb. Processing this reaction of nuclear fission in slow motion is applied to nuclear plant to produce heat which boils water and steams from water will turn the generator to produce electricity.

Nuclear Fusion (Hydrogen Bomb and stars)-> Nuclear Fusion is basically the form of universe its self from its inception, the fundamental form of life how each star lives and dies. It is a process to produce heavier atom combining lighter atoms. While it is an opposite process from nuclear fission (heavier and unstable atom decaying to lighter atom), it also behaves in similar way to emit the difference of mass from before and after of this process as pure energy including Gamma rays by photons and many other elementary particles such as protons and Neutrinos would be emitted. And that's how sun works giving us lots of light and heat. However, in order to initiate this process, it requires extreme heat, at least 2.5million (K), while the temperature at center of sun is 15million (K)! So, in order to artificially detonate this Hydrogen Bomb, it requires Atomic Bomb (nuclear fission bomb) to explode first, which is detonated by TNT or C4 explosives, basically 3 steps to initiate this Hydrogen Bomb to be detonated with immense heat. There're few successful experiments done by US and former Soviet union for Hydrogen Bomb in history, and the one by Soviet exceeded the US experiment, it produced 15 Megaton (15,000,000 times more power compare to one ton of TNT explosives). Although, this nuclear fusion has not find way for any other use than to create bomb at this time, since it is much more difficult to control it in order to be used for generator etc. The success of those bombs by US and Soviet experiments was the beginning of the cold war, since both parties proved that they can destroy entire planet by possibly pressing one Red Button to detonate such bomb!